Author: Dr. D'Angeli
Kaletra is a combination drug containing lopinavir and ritonavir. It is used for the treatment of viral diseases, including HIV, and belongs to the inhibitors of proteolytic enzymes that block the production of the protease enzyme. The HIV protease acts as a chemical knife that cuts the building protein for HIV infection into the lobes required to reproduce a new pathogen. Inhibitors of proteolytic enzymes do not allow the reproduction of viruses, inhibiting their action.
Who is assigned?
Kaletra is used for the treatment of acquired human immunodeficiency syndrome as a combination therapy. Studies were conducted on adults and children from 6 months, the results of which showed a positive effect on patients, slowing the development of the virus. The substance can resist the process of reproduction of the pathogen protein. This does not give the cell a chance to Mature and infect the body.
At the moment, there is no strict framework for who and when to assign Vaart. Based on the results of the tests, the doctor assesses the CD4 index and viral load, the presence of symptoms present and the tolerability of the drug. Next, the necessary dosage and method of use are selected.
When Kaletra is combined with other antiretroviral drugs, it is likely to reduce the severity of the viral infection to a minimum and increase the CD4 content in the blood. This means that the body will cope with viruses on its own, thanks to its immune system.
The development of resistance
The development of resistance to "Kaletra" was studied both in patients not receiving antiretroviral therapy and in patients receiving HIV protease inhibitors.
Many of the latest copies of the human immunodeficiency virus are subject to change. They differ somewhat from the original structure. Certain of the new mutated pathogens can be reproduced against the background of antiretroviral therapy. If this happens, the drug simply ceases to have a therapeutic effect. This phenomenon is called "developing resistance".
If the human immunodeficiency virus has developed resistance to one drug, it can become immune to other drugs.
Immunity can form quite quickly. Therefore, "Kaletra" should be taken according to the instructions and prescribed mode. You can not skip the reception and reduce the dosage.
When taking Kaletra in the patient's blood, there is an increased concentration of active substances to fully control the development of HIV infection, which has formed an immunity to other medications.
It is made in the form of tablets, which are covered with a film shell, reddish hue, elongated shape. One tablet contains 200 mg of lopinavir and 50 mg of ritonavir, auxiliary components. Available in plastic bottles of 120 pieces. The drug is prescribed inside. The medicine should be swallowed whole, without chewing. Take with or without food.
As a rule, the daily dose is 2 tablets 2 times a day or 1 four times a day for patients starting treatment.
It is also produced as a transparent solution of a light yellow hue. The daily dosage for adults is 5 ml. the solution is Prescribed inside during meals, but during the course, you should limit the use of fatty foods. Before taking it, you can drink grapefruit juice or peanut butter to dull the taste of Kaletra.
Different doses of "Kaletra" are used in different treatment methods. You must strictly adhere to all doctor's instructions.
Also, the drug is prescribed for children. The dose is calculated based on weight.
Keep the medicine in the form of tablets out of the reach of children. The solution can be frozen or stored at a temperature of 20-25 degrees for no more than 60 days.
While taking Kaletra, the following side effects may develop: diarrhea, nausea, gag reflex, increased cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. Urticaria and Quincke's edema may also be observed with hypersensitivity to the components of the drug and side effects from other organs and systems:
- Gastrointestinal tract: pain in the epigastrium, inflammation of the large intestine, bloating, stomach ulcer and 12-duodenal ulcer, dry mouth.
- Nervous system: headache, insomnia, anxiety, dizziness, trembling limbs.
- CCC: increased blood PRESSURE, myocardial infarction, lower limb vein thrombosis.
- Skin: rashes, eczema, increased sweating.
- Musculoskeletal system: weakness in the muscles, pain in the back.
- Endocrine system: diabetes mellitus, weight loss, lack of appetite.
- Reproductive system: erectile function disorder, menstrual cycle disorder.
- Hematopoietic systems: low content of hemoglobin, white blood cells, neutrophils in the blood, enlarged lymph nodes.
- Sensory organs: changes in visual acuity, tinnitus.
Do not prescribe for patients with hypersensitivity to the components, as well as for severe liver failure. It is not recommended to prescribe against the background of other drugs: fusidic acid, rifampicin, containing St. John's wort, tadalafil, and others. Therefore, before prescribing Kaletra, be sure to inform your doctor about the medications you are taking.
With great caution, it is prescribed for severe liver diseases, people over 65 years of age, inflammation of the pancreas, hemophilia, and organic heart lesions.
During pregnancy, it is possible to prescribe the drug, but only if the benefit of taking it is higher than the risk of complications for the mother and fetus.
Overdose is quite rare. There is no specific antidote for overdose. All medical measures are aimed at maintaining the patient's life. If necessary, apply gastric lavage, and assign adsorbents. Dialysis is impractical because of the high degree of binding of the drug to blood proteins.
Interaction with other medications
Kaletra interacts with other medications. Therefore, caution should be exercised with certain medications. For example, with drugs for erectile function disorders, anti-allergic, anti-tuberculosis and antiarrhythmic, sedatives and antifungal agents, as well as drugs to reduce the concentration of cholesterol.
On the background of Didazodine therapy, Kaletra should be taken 1-2 hours after the first one is consumed.
Drugs that neutralize the acidity of gastric juice are prescribed 2 hours after Kaletra.
Simultaneous administration with Nelfinavir reduces the concentration of Kaletra in plasma.
Certain contraceptives on the background of treatment with this tool do not prevent conception.
Do not take it in combination with the herb St. John's wort, as it reduces the concentration of the protease inhibitor.
This medication reduces the concentration of methadone. Therefore, it is undesirable to assign it together with Buprenorphine.
It is also not recommended to prescribe against the background of Lamotrigine treatment, used for medicinal purposes in epileptic seizures and neuropathy.
Kaletra has several alternative medications that have a similar effect. Only the attending physician can change the scheme of treatment measures. Self-medication can cause harm to the body.
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